OSI Layers types and all details explained

OSI Layers types and all details explained
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Firstly, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model describes seven layers that computer systems use to communicate with a network. So, It was the first standard model of network communication; OSI Layers are there in all major computer and telecommunications companies in the early 1980s.

The modern internet is not based on OSI, but on a simpler TCP / IP model. However, the OSI 7-layer model is still there widely, as it helps to visualize and communicate how networks work; and helps to differentiate and solve network problems.

We will define OSI layers as “up and down”. From the application layer that works for the end-user to the visual layer. The OSI layers


Application background is used by end-user software such as web browsers and email clients. It provides the basic principles that allow the software to send and receive information and present useful data to users. So, A few examples of application framework agreements are Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP); File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Post Office Protocol (POP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and Domain Name System (DNS).

Introduction Background

The presentation layer prepares application layer data. The presentation layer captures any data transferred by the application layer and prepares it for transfer over the session layer.

Session Background

The session layer creates communication channels, called sessions, between devices. It is responsible for opening sessions, ensuring that they remain open and active during data transfer; and closing them when communication is limited. The session layer can also set up test locations during data transfer; if the session is interrupted, devices can restart data transfer from the last test location.

Transport Framework

So, The transport layer takes the data transferred to the session layer and breaks it into “segments”; at the end of the transfer. Also, It is responsible for reassembling the segments at the end of the reception; restoring them to data that can be used by the session layer. So, The transport layer enables flow control, sending data at a value similar to the speed of connecting the receiving device; and error control, checking that data receiving is incorrectly and if not, requesting it again.

Network layer

The network layer has two main functions. One splits the components into network packets and reassembles the packets at the end of the receiver. One is to use packets by finding the best way across the visible network. The network layer uses network addresses (usually Internet Protocol addresses) to package packets to the destination.

Data Link Layer

The data link layer establishes and disconnects the two physically connected nodes in a network. It separates the packets into individual parts and sends them from the source to the destination. This layer is made up of two components — Logical Link Control (LLC); which detects network protocols, performs error checking and synchronizes frames, and Media Access Control; (MAC) uses MAC addresses to connect devices and define permissions for data transfer and reception.

Body layer

The virtual layer is responsible for the actual cable or wireless connection between network nodes. It defines a connector, power cable or wireless technology that connects devices; and is responsible for the transmission of raw data; which is simply a series of 0s and 1s while taking care of low-level control.

Advantages of OSI Layers Model

The OSI model assists users and operators of computer networks:

  • Determine the required hardware and software to build their network.
  • Understand and communicate the process followed by the communication components throughout the network.
  • Perform problem-solving, by identifying which network layer is causing the problem and focusing efforts on that layer.
  • The OSI model assists network device manufacturers and network software, vendors:
  1. Create devices and software that can interact with products from any other vendor, allowing for open interaction
  2. Explain which parts of the network their products should work with.
  3. Connect with users where their product layer layers apply; for example, in the application layer only, or in the entire stack.

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OSI vs. TCP / IP Model

The main difference between the models is that TCP / IP is simple, combining several OSI layers into one:

Also, TCP / IP does not take on the responsibility of sequencing and reporting functions; so, leaving this in the lower transition layer. Also, Other important differences:

TCP / IP is a functional model designed to solve specific communication problems, and based on straightforward, standard protocols. So, OSI is a standard, independent protocol model intended to define all types of network communication. In TCP / IP, most applications use all layers, while in OSI simple applications do not use all seven layers. Also Read: AI for kids


So, Imperva security solutions protect your applications across multiple layers of the OSI model, from the network layer, protected by Imperva DDoS mitigation, to Imperva web firewall (WAF), bot management and security technologies. API that protects the application layer.

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